Reconsiderations of Frameworks of Ethnic History: A Comparison of Metis and Ukrainian-Canadian HistoriographiesEthnic historians in Canada have tended to use ethnicity as a
Ethnic historians in Canada have tended to use ethnicity as a methodological framework without defining it or questioning the origins of ethnic consciousness. Many tend to conceptualize ethnicity strictly in terms of a place of origin, despite the fact that ethnic boundaries and consciousness are often transformed in the host nation. Taking the history of Ukrainian-Canadians as an example, this article argues that definitions of ethnicity based on the national and/or racial origins of immigrants must be reconsidered. It suggests that scholars of Metis history, focusing on factors that shape ethnogenesis such as economy, gender, religion, and settlement patterns, provide certain theoretical insights useful for ethnic historians. Yet the categorical division between ethnic and Native histories has hitherto hindered communication between these fields.