Ukrainians in Manchuria, China: A Concise Historical Survey
There is a body of literature that attests to Russian influence in the early development of Harbin, China, Edmonton's twin city, and northern Manchuria generally. What is not acknowledged in this literature, however, is that the "Russian" presence in Manchuria drew on considerable Ukrainian participation. This article explains why scholars of Manchuria have tended to refer to the settlers from the European parts of the Russian Empire only as "Russians" rather than distinguishing them according to their real national compartments. Then, by drawing on little known sources, an examination of the background to Ukrainian settlement in the region, the evolution of the community there, and the emergence of separate Ukrainian organizations, follows.