Aboriginal Languages in Selected Cities In Canada: A Decade in Review, 1996 to 2006, Part Two
This article is the second of a two-part series by the author, the first of which appeared in aboriginal policy studies 1(2), that explores the issue of Aboriginal languages in urban areas from a demographic perspective. The series presents findings and indicators on the state, patterns, and trends of Aboriginal languages in urban areas over a decade, based on 1996 and 2006 Census data.. The first part of the series addressed urban areas in general. This second part focuses on specific cities, illustrating the significant variation in the state and diversity of the numerous Aboriginal languages spoken in cities across Canada. It presents indicators for twenty selected individual cities, including all thirteen cities of the Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS). Results reveal considerable heterogeneity within and across cities in the linguistic composition and state of their Aboriginal languages: in speaker numbers and characteristics; language use; and in transmission and learning. Findings suggest implications for policies and programs in urban Aboriginal language planning that reflect maintenance and revitalization activities based on city-specific needs and challenges.
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