Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Acetazolamide in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients and Healthy Volunteers

Corinne Seng Yue1, Huu Hung Huynh1, Catherine Raymond1, Louise Charbonneau1, Louise Roy1

1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal

Abstract


Purpose. To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of acetazolamide (ACTZ) in peritoneal dialysis patients, ACTZ 500 mg was administered intravenously to 7 healthy subjects (HV) and 8 peritoneal dialysis patients (CAPD). Methods. Population PK/PD modeling was performed with ACTZ serum (total and unbound), urine and dialysate concentrations, intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and covariates. A multi-compartment PK model (accounting for non-linear protein binding) and an inhibitory Emax (maximal change in IOP) PD model were selected. Results. As expected, renal clearance (which almost equals total body clearance) was severely decreased in CAPD (1.2 vs 80.3 L/h) and the elimination half-life of total ACTZ was prolonged (20.6 vs 3.4 hours). The protein binding was significantly altered with a mean free fraction 4.2% in HV and 8.6% in CAPD. Moreover protein binding of ACTZ was concentration dependent in both HV and CAPD. Despite a higher free fraction of ACTZ, the Emax was lower in CAPD: 4.4±1.4 vs 7.4±2.8 mmHg. Conclusion. Both PK and PD are significantly altered in dialysis patients.

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J Pharm Pharm Sci, 16 (1): 89-98, 2013

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